First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 1,923 papers in 286 issues, written by 2,712 different authors, over the past 23 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> University of Illinois at Chicago University Library en-US First Monday 1396-0466 <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> Digital nomads, coworking, and other expressions of mobile work on Twitter https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10246 <p>We analyze a set of Twitter hashtags to ascertain how contemporary parlance in social media can illuminate the rich cultural intersections between modern forms of work, use of technology, and physical mobility. We use network word co-occurrence analysis and topic modeling to reveal several thematic areas of discourse present in Twitter, each with its own affiliated terms and&nbsp;distinctive emphases. The first theme centers on worker identity and is currently dominated by the experiences of digital nomads. The second theme focuses on the practicalities of working in a physical location and is currently dominated by issues related to co-working spaces. Finally, the third theme is a loose and speculative set of ideas around the evolution of work in the future, predicting how enterprises may have to adapt to new ways of working. Our contribution is twofold. First, we contribute to scholarship on social media methods by showing how a robust analysis of Twitter data can help scholars find subthematic nuance within a complex discussion space by identifying the existence and boundaries of topical sub-themes. Second, we contribute to scholarship on the future of work by providing empirical evidence for the ways that the myriad terms related to mobility and work relate to one another and, most importantly, how these relations signal semantic centrality among those who share their thoughts on these types of work.</p> Jeff Hemsley Ingrid Erickson Mohammad Hossein Jarrahi Amir Karami Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-15 2020-02-15 10.5210/fm.v25i3.10246 Violence begetting violence: An examination of extremist content on deep Web social networks https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10421 <p>Several incidents of mass violence in 2019 were preceded by manifestoes posted to deep Web social media sites by their perpetrators. These sites, most notably 4chan and 8chan, are buried in the deep Web, away from the neutralizing effects of broad public discourse. Many of the posts to these sites reference earlier extremist incidents, and indeed the incidents themselves mimic aspects of previous attacks. Building on previous research, this paper examines these deep Web social media sites. Through an analysis of traffic and posts, we confirm that these sites often act as a self-reinforcing community of users encouraging each other to violence, and we map a statistically significant rise in &amp;rdquo;post volume&amp;rdquo; on these sites immediately following terrorist attacks.</p> Simon Malevich Tom Robertson Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 10.5210/fm.v25i3.10421 Algorithmic extremism: Examining YouTube's rabbit hole of radicalization https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10419 <p class="Abstract">The role that YouTube and its behind-the-scenes recommendation algorithm plays in encouraging online radicalization has been suggested by both journalists and academics alike. This study directly quantifies these claims by examining the role that YouTube’s algorithm plays in suggesting radicalized content. After categorizing nearly 800 political channels, we were able to differentiate between political schemas in order to analyze the algorithm traffic flows out and between each group. After conducting a detailed analysis of recommendations received by each channel type, we refute the popular radicalization claims. On the contrary, these data suggest that YouTube’s recommendation algorithm actively discourages viewers from visiting radicalizing or extremist content. Instead, the algorithm is shown to favor mainstream media and cable news content over independent YouTube channels with a slant towards left-leaning or politically neutral channels. Our study thus suggests that YouTube’s recommendation algorithm fails to promote inflammatory or radicalized content, as previously claimed by several outlets.</p> Mark Ledwich Anna Zaitsev Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-26 2020-02-26 10.5210/fm.v25i3.10419 Big data experiments with the archived Web: Methodological reflections on studying the development of a nation's Web https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10384 <span lang="EN-US">This article outlines how the 'digital geography' of a nation can be studied, that is the online presence of one nation. The entire Danish Web domain and its development from 2006 to 2015 is used as a case, based on the holdings in the Danish national Web archive. The following research questions guide the investigation: What has the Danish Web domain looked like in the past, and how has it developed in the period 2006-2015? Methodologically, we investigate to what extent one can delimit 'a nation' on the Web, and what characterizes the archived Web as a historical source for academic studies, as well as the general characteristics of our specific data source. Analytically, the article introduces a design for how this type of big data analyses of an entire national Web domain can be performed. Our findings show some of the ways in which a nation's digital landscape can be mapped, ie. on size, content types and hyperlinks. On a broader canvas, this study demonstrates that with hard- and software as well as human competencies from different disciplines it is possible to perform large-scale historical studies of one of the biggest media sources of today, the World Wide Web.</span> Niels Brügger Janne Nielsen Ditte Laursen Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-10 2020-02-10 10.5210/fm.v25i3.10384 Reason vs. emotion in the Brexit campaign: How key political actors and their followers used Twitter https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/9601 <p><span id="docs-internal-guid-28fb552e-7fff-f9a1-3118-9017e0f0613d" style="font-size: 12pt; font-family: Calibri; color: #000000; background-color: transparent; font-weight: 400; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; text-decoration: none; vertical-align: baseline; white-space: pre-wrap;">Online social network platforms have been, since their rise to prominence, considered as relevant gateways to study individual behaviors. One of those realms is politics, from massive movements and demonstrations to institutionalized events like general elections or referendums in democratic countries. In this paper, we are interested in the behavior of professional politicians in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum of June 2016, colloquially known as the “Brexit referendum”. We ask how, during the final weeks of the campaign, four key political actors (Jeremy Corbyn, David Cameron, Boris Johnson, and Nigel Farage) used Twitter through their official accounts regarding this popular consultation and how that action was received by their followers. To be more precise, we ask if they predominantly appealed to emotions or to rational arguments (Usage Axis), and what was, in each case, the impact of the tweets (Impact Axis). We conclude that, regardless of the way each actor used Twitter during the campaign, the appeal to emotions and the debasement of the opposing views tended to have more relevance, which may be a distressing hypothesis for democracy.</span></p> Jorge Martins Rosa Cristian Jiménez Ruiz Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-24 2020-02-24 10.5210/fm.v25i3.9601 Children using electronic sensors to create and use knowledge on environmental health https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/9646 <p>The Eco-sensors4Health Project (Eco-sensors for health: Supporting children to create eco-healthy schools) is centered on the use of electronic sensors by children to become agents in the creation of healthy and sustainable environments in schools. In this Project, the environmental health data, acquired by children with the sensors, with tablets or mobile phones, is managed with the support of a collaborative platform that allows entering, searching and visualizing data of the different schools. The Eco-sensors4Health Toolkit is a guide to the implementation of the environmental health activities in schools, which include the exploratory sensorial tasks, the environmental data acquisition, organization and interpretation, and the decision making to improve schools’ environmental health. The iterative development processes of the Eco-sensors4Health Platform and Toolkit are presented in this paper as well as illustrative results of its uses in different schools. Those results indicate that the use of sensors by children in the context of authentic environmental health activities makes it possible to children to create and apply knowledge to solve schools’ environmental health problems.</p> Maria João Silva Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-21 2020-02-21 10.5210/fm.v25i3.9646 A usability evaluation of Web user interface scrolling types https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10309 <p>This paper details a usability evaluation of scrolling techniques on websites. The scrolling methods evaluated were normal scrolling (with default pagination), infinite scrolling, infinite scrolling with a ‘load more’ button and Infinite Scrolling with ‘pagination’. The four scrolling types were evaluated in the context of tasks that involved either serendipitous type tasks or goal-oriented type tasks. The evaluation was principally about the ‘raw’ performance and participant perceptions. This is because it was felt that the greatest gap in knowledge concerned these aspects. The evaluation was done by means of an experiment and the data collected was statistically analysed. The results were mixed in nature, where no single scrolling method stood out as being the most usable.</p> Sushil Sharma Pietro Murano Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday 2020-02-18 2020-02-18 10.5210/fm.v25i3.10309