First Monday <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 2,197 papers in 317 issues, written by 3,207 different authors over the past 26 years. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> (Edward J. Valauskas) (Nancy John) Wed, 05 Oct 2022 08:36:24 -0500 OJS 60 What does salad have to do with racial justice? Promoting solidarity in the time of COVID-19 <p>In the late spring and summer of 2020, a local build-your-own salad restaurant chain, along with many mid-size corporations and local non-profit organizations, sent an e-mail statement in response to the death of George Floyd by the police. Different from corporations and large institutions, these businesses and organizations — what we collectively term the “salad group” within our sample — associated their product or service (ranging from salads to yoga mats to chocolate) with the project of creating a more local, socially just, and inclusive community. A thematic analysis of 81 crowdsourced organization e-mail messages identified the use of both internal and external appeals for action, although organizations chiefly focused on their internal actions. Our analysis revealed that these e-mails primarily offered solutions that invited or highlighted Black participation in their business enterprises. We describe such statements as <em>salad solidarity</em>, a genre of promotion that simultaneously appeals to consumers and social change. Indeed, the framing of possible external responses as tied to consumer choice — and internal responses as tied to a company’s growth and reach — do not directly address the structural problems that spurred these e-mail campaigns. Consequently, such corporate and digital messaging of social movements provokes questions about the commercialization of political movements and the value that language and digital tools hold in building solidarity. We conclude with observations on how e-mails, and digital platforms more broadly, can and cannot facilitate political change, from the analytical lens of racial capitalism. These findings have broader implications for the study of corporate-social responsibility, networked social movements, and mediated communication.</p> Matthew Bui, Rachel Kuo, Anne L. Washington Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Awareness systems or echo chambers? Latin American journalists’ usage of Twitter as a news gathering tool <p>Twitter holds the potential to help journalists — especially at independent news organizations in the Global South with limited resources — to diversify their news gathering beyond reliance on traditional gatekeepers. However, both Twitter’s design and journalists’ news gathering routines may be reinforcing, rather than breaking, media echo chambers. This study gauges how journalists in developing countries are using Twitter and whether new tools for interacting with the platform might help them access a greater diversity of online voices. To do so, we combine ethnographic observation of newsrooms in Mexico and Venezuela with a pilot test of a who-to-follow recommendation algorithm that seeks to expose Twitter users to new perspectives. We find that journalists’ strategies for using Twitter vary based on their organizational roles, the temporality of their work, and concerns about misinformation, but that some may indeed be receptive to alternative approaches to Twitter as an “awareness system” to generate news story ideas and identify sources.</p> Noah Amir Arjomand, Ali Ghazinejad Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Combating misinformation in times of COVID-19: A comparison of the social network strategies of the Spanish government and the autonomous communities <p>Social networks offer excellent opportunities for healthcare organizations to disseminate information and communicate with individuals during a health crisis, since they can influence health-related decisions and perspectives. In this paper we compare strategies carried out by the Spanish government and the autonomous community authorities on several social networks (Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter). In spite of offering two-way communications, actual use of such platforms was one-way. In addition, some agencies did not have profiles on these platforms; in fact, two agenices were not present on Instagram, the platform with the youngest users. Finally, there was an increasing use of images on social network postings. Results demonstrate that in times of health crisis, some governmental agencies employ social networks mainly as a tool to disseminate information.</p> Ruben Nicolas-Sans, Javier Bustos Díaz, María Eugenia Martínez-Sánchez, Lara Martin-Vicario Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 “I’m in the center of a vortex”: Mapping the affective experiences of trolling victims <p>This study investigates how the landscape of affect in trolling is constituted from the perspective of victims. It is based on a series of semi-structured interviews conducted in 2018 and 2019 with people who had experienced trolling on Chinese social media and were willing to talk about it. All participants described trolling incidents as beginning from something seemingly inconsequential. By the end of their descriptions, however, a messy, uncontrolled situation emerged that became the source of stress, frustration, and anxiety. Victims worked, sometimes unsuccessfully, to escape from trolling and regain control, not just of their social media communications but also of their identities. Their posts and, inevitably, themselves became the central point of attraction for content to stick to. Screenshots played a particular role in creating this stickiness. Even though some factors were considered a normal but unfortunate part of using social media, crossing the line into private spaces was considered unacceptable. A mapping of the landscape of affect showed that the emotions expressed have a clear starting point in surprise and a fairly clear sequence, with timing, including rapid escalation and drawn-out continuation of the experience, alongside a lack of logical explanations and reactions, leading to a sense of powerlessness. The potential for damage to a victim’s everyday life and for harm to their sense of self, along with the difficulties in reclaiming an identity over which they have control, indicates that a focus on the victims of trolling is a topic worthy of further research.</p> Huixin Tian, Hilary Yerbury Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 WhatsApp in African trade networks: Professional practice and obtaining attention in AfCFTA policy formation <p>The emerging attention to the role of WhatsApp in African politics tends to examine it as a conduit for misinformation, or as part of a suite of digital tools that destabilize existing hierarchies. Within these larger transformations, African policymakers are finding ways of incorporating WhatsApp into their professional practice. This small-n study aims to understand more about the dynamics of elite influence and consensus building via participant observation of African WhatsApp groups that are dedicated to shaping the framing, construction and meaning of intra-continental trade policy in advance of the African Continental Free Trade Area coming into effect. I report how these groups view WhatsApp as a ‘technology of Pan-Africanism’ but also how this platform facilitates ‘backstage activism’ and self-promotion within elite cultures. The study also notes elite recruitment, and motivation, as well as these elites’ self-conception of science, technology, and innovation.</p> Scott Timcke Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 The anatomy of citizen science projects in information systems <p>Citizen science is an emerging approach for conducting research in the field of information systems. It refers to the participation of individuals with various backgrounds in research projects. It is necessary to match research implementation closely with plans because the anatomy of a citizen science project is quite complex. The literature shows that managing a long-term citizen science project is an even more complex task. To obtain a coherent understanding of citizen science in the field of information systems, we conducted a systematic literature review on the topic for which we used all the major information systems journals and conference proceedings. We devised the episode framework which consists of four blocks: design of pillars, the episodes of CS implementation, adjustment of activities, and post-implementation. The framework emphasizes the Weinhardt division of the project into separate episodes which are sequentially ordered but which we need to run in parallel because of the dynamic nature of a citizen science project when participants can join and leave freely. Moreover, in some projects, participants can take on different roles, which complicates project management further.</p> Duong Dang, Teemu Mäenpää, Juho-Pekka Mäkipää, Tomi Pasanen Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500 Examining the technological and pedagogical elements of select open courseware <p style="font-weight: 400;">Openness in open courseware (OCW) and open educational resources (OER) requires an open licence, such as Creative Commons licenses, but is affected by several factors both technological and pedagogical. This pilot study examines different factors impacting openness by looking at a very small random sample of 10 relatively recent open courseware offerings from TU Delft and MIT. This paper has two primary objectives: 1) to determine how open the sampled OCW are across eight factors of analysis; and, 2) to determine if the sampled OCW are suitable for educator reuse. The authors evaluated the sampled courses using an existing framework to conceptualize openness. The level of openness was evaluated across eight-factors: copyright/open licensing, accessibility/usability, language, support costs, assessment, digital distribution, file format, and cultural considerations. The framework describes each factor across three dimensions of openness — closed, mixed, and most open — and each author coded the sampled OCW accordingly. This content analysis provided several insights into where sampled OCW succeeded and failed in terms of openness. Courses tended to be relatively open in terms of copyright, assessment, and digital distribution, but closed in terms of language, support costs, and file format. Factors such as accessibility and cultural considerations were more mixed; discipline and course content play a factor in a course’s openness and reuse. This paper also serves a secondary purpose, on the effectiveness of the framework for assessing openness. Openness is a spectrum, with an interplay between factors that determine openness. Greater attention needs to be shown toward pedagogical considerations, rather than technical, when developing open content.</p> Erik Christiansen, Michael McNally Copyright (c) 2022 First Monday Wed, 05 Oct 2022 00:00:00 -0500