First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm <p><em>First Monday</em> is one of the first openly accessible, peer–reviewed journals solely devoted to resarch about the Internet. <em>First Monday</em> has published 1,943 papers in 289 issues, written by 2,737 different authors over the past 24 years.. No subscription fees, no submission fees, no advertisements, no fundraisers, no walls.</p> en-US <p>Authors retain copyright to their work published in <em>First Monday</em>. Please see the footer of each article for details.</p> ejv@uic.edu (Edward J. Valauskas) nrj@uic.edu (Nancy John) Mon, 01 Jun 2020 06:08:36 -0500 OJS 3.1.2.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 What types of COVID-19 conspiracies are populated by Twitter bots? https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10633 <p>With people moving out of physical public spaces due to containment measures to tackle the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, online platforms become even more prominent tools to understand social discussion. Studying social media can be informative to assess how we are collectively coping with this unprecedented global crisis. However, social media platforms are also populated by bots, automated accounts that can amplify certain topics of discussion at the expense of others. In this paper, we study 43.3M English tweets about COVID-19 and provide early evidence of the use of bots to promote political conspiracies in the United States, in stark contrast with humans who focus on public health concerns.</p> Emilio Ferrara Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10633 Tue, 19 May 2020 16:48:25 -0500 The Situation Room icon and its Internet memes: Subversion of the Osama bin Laden raid and fragmentation of iconicity in remix culture. https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10531 <p>The Situation Room photograph, which shows President Barack Obama and cabinet members watching the Osama bin Laden raid in 2011, remains the dominant official image of the event. Within hours of its public release, scores of Internet memes of the famous picture offered alternative interpretations of what had taken place in Pakistan during the military mission, often contradicting the president’s positive description of the operation. This qualitative interpretative study argues that many of the memes that proliferated through cyberspace symbolically subverted the bin Laden raid, disrupting and challenging its celebratory framing by the administration. The study highlights potential competition that Internet memes might pose to institutional accounts of the past and to icons themselves, suggesting possible fracturing of iconicity in remix culture.</p> Natalia Mielczarek Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10531 Mon, 11 May 2020 06:28:29 -0500 Sweden then vs. Sweden now https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10552 <p>This article analyses 262 memes, the majority image-macros, posted to a large Swedish anti-immigration Facebook group in order to explore the memetic normalisation of far-right nostalgia. Through the application of an array of critical visual analysis methods it reveals that the nostalgia that disguises hateful far-right discourses in the group is not merely a reflection of that peddled by Sweden’s organised far-right political parties and movements but a complex crowdsourced amalgam involving different nostalgic modes and moods. Unpacking these modes and moods, the article also highlights some of the nostalgic tensions at play in the group, indicating the need to rethink broader understandings of far-right nostalgia and calling for further research into how it can be used to veil hate in digital settings.</p> Samuel Merrill Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10552 Thu, 14 May 2020 20:09:25 -0500 A corpo-civic space: A notion To address social media’s corporate/civic hybridity https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10603 <p>This article proposes a solution to understand the spatial hybridity of social media spaces such as Facebook and Instagram, constructed between a corporate entity and a civic space. Switching the main poles of third space theory to represent ‘corporate’ and ‘civic’ spaces, this essay compares Facebook/Instagram to similar off-line spaces in order to propose they are a ‘corpo-civic’ space. In doing so, it provides recommendations for fairer moderation of user content posted on these platforms based on international human rights standards and ethics that already exist off-line.</p> Carolina Are Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10603 Thu, 21 May 2020 12:31:54 -0500 Beyond accessibility https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10572 <p>The ethics and responsibilities of technology companies are under increased scrutiny over the power to design the User Experiences (UXs) embedded in their products. Researchers advocating a Rawlsian “just and fair” design process have suggested a “veil of ignorance” thought experiment in which designers adopt the standpoint of unspecified hypothetical users to ensure designers are not biasing their own perspectives at the expense of others. This article examines including and excluding such standpoints through the lens of edge users—a term based on extreme “edge cases” in which systems are more likely to break down. Edge users are particularly marginalized and subject to a spiral of exclusion when interacting via Internet and Web resources whose design disregards them because their ability to research and voice their experiences is further limited. Active proxies, those already helping or standing in for marginalized users, can be enlisted as design allies to develop a deeper understanding of such edge groups and contexts. Design ethics, in short, needs to move beyond making technologies accessible to all people, to making all types of people accessible to designers.</p> Julian Kilker Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10572 Tue, 12 May 2020 16:48:40 -0500 Trolls at the polls https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10704 <p>This article considers how politically motivated Internet trolling, within the context of Malaysia from May 2018 until February 2020, made use of affordances of algorithms and platforms to achieve their goals, from targeted attacks on individuals to collective interventions for advancing social and informational justice. Centering on the importance of digital platforms and algorithms in framing and shaping online communication, this article explores the decisions, actions, and policies which, framed and shaped by these algorithms, produced a particular space in Malaysian political discourse that enables Internet-based political trolls. Attention is given to the infrastructure of trolling, as well as the platforms supporting and cultivating the practice of trolling that are usually international in their ownership, development, and user base. By focusing on the trollish practices of a “minor” non-Western community in Asia, we attempt to theorize the effects of digital infrastructure at the periphery of multinational platforms based on participant-observation research and media-textual analysis.</p> Clarissa Ai Ling Lee, Eric Kerr Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10704 Mon, 25 May 2020 07:33:04 -0500 Editing for equity: Understanding instructor motivations for integrating cross-disciplinary Wikipedia assignments https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10575 <p>Advances in both research and advocacy have demonstrated how Wikipedia-based education, as a movement, has grown exponentially in the last 10 years. As a result, academics know a lot more about specific learning outcomes that Wikipedia assignments might enable and are more familiar with issues of social equity (<em>e.g.</em>, systemic biases related to gender) in the encyclopedia. Despite these advances, little scholarship has focused on instructor motivations for utilizing Wikipedia assignments. This paper reports on a survey of over 100 instructors engaged in Wikipedia-based education practices in order to contribute a cross-disciplinary picture of instructor motivations. Our findings suggest that instructors take up Wikipedia-based assignments for a number of reasons beyond learning objectives: including social influence (being inspired by others), providing students an opportunity to contribute to public knowledge, and motivations related to addressing social equity, among others. Participants who are directly motivated to address issues of social equity rationalize their pedagogy as opportunities for activism or advocacy, professional identity, and critical pedagogy. Finally, this paper provides recommendations to Wikipedia Education stakeholders in regards to the finding that instructors’ professional identities play a significant role in their motivation to address issues of social equity.</p> Jiawei Xing, Matthew Vetter Copyright (c) 2020 First Monday https://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/10575 Mon, 25 May 2020 18:08:03 -0500